Damavand Mountain is located in the central part of the Alborz mountain range in the south of the Caspian Sea. From the point of view of country divisions, this peak is located in Larijan section of Amol city in Mazandaran province. This mountain was registered in the list of national monuments on July 13, 2008 as the first natural monument of Iran. Also, Damavand Peak has been one of the four valuable areas in terms of environmental protection since 2002 as a national natural monument. Damavand Mountain has been a symbol of greatness and glory for Iranians and has long played a significant role in the literature and history of the country and has always been mentioned in Persian legends. Damavand tour

Damavand Peak is the highest volcanic peak in Iran and the Middle East, that is one of the sights of Mazandaran Province and is located in the north of the country. Damavand is located in the Larijan section of Amol city in Mazandaran province in terms of country divisions, and on sunny and clear days, this beautiful peak can be seen from Tehran, Varamin, Qom and the Caspian Sea.

The beautiful peak of this mountain can be seen from the cities of Tehran, Qom and Varamin; but it is better to travel to Tehran or Damavand to climb it. The main routes to the summit are marked on four fronts. Although most routes have a refuge, it is best to choose a group of hikers for mountaineering. The southern front, which starts from the southeast of Damavand Mountain, is the most common climbing route. Damavand Ice Waterfall is located in the direction of this front. Today, shelters have been built for climbers on various routes to the summit, some of which can be overnight. You can also get a climbing guide at these camps.

Damavand is ranked twelfth in the world in terms of relative height. The National Geosciences Database of Iran and the website of NASA Earth Observatory have also mentioned the height of 5670 meters and 5671 meters for the top of this mountain.

The air pressure at Damavand Peak is half the air pressure at sea level. The minimum temperature in Damavand heights drops to 60 degrees below zero (in winter) and up to two degrees below zero (in summer). The average rainfall in the heights of Damavand is 1400 mm per year and the rainfall in the heights is usually snow.

At the time of the Assyrian invasion of the Iranian plateau, this mountain was considered part of the Medes and is also mentioned in Assyrian texts. There are many prehistoric tombs on the slopes of Damavand. In the eighth century AD, there was a fortress at the foot of Damavand Mountain where a Zoroastrian cleric named Mesumghan and his followers lived, and this fortress was destroyed by the order of Al-Mahdi, the Abbasid Caliph, and Mesoghan was killed. During the Pahlavi dynasty and in different periods of Iranian history, the role of Damavand Mountain and the sun shining behind it were used as a symbol of Iran.

This mountain has also been introduced with completely different names of Bikini and Jabal Jabal. Regarding the reason for naming Damavand in a certain culture, it is stated: tail (tail, steam) + avand = Damavand; It has tail, smoke and steam (volcano).

this mountain is also mentioned in Iranian mythology. This myth and Damavand Mountain in general have been mentioned a lot in Persian literary works.

It is best known for the fact that Fereydoun, one of the mythological figures of Iran, imprisoned Zahak in a cave there, and Zahak was imprisoned there until the end of time, when the prison broke and he started killing the people, and finally he was killed by Garshasp. Some residents near the mountain still believe that Zahak is imprisoned in Damavand and believe that some of the sounds heard from the mountain are his moans. According to a legend, Fereydoun’s army fought against Kaveh and Zahak’s army near Damavand.

According to Balami, the place of residence of Kiomars is Damavand mountain and his son’s grave is also located there. Damavand is raised again in the kingdom of Manouchehr; Arash Kamangir fired an arrow from above to determine the border between Iran and Turan.

On the southern front of Damavand Mountain, there is a frozen waterfall that is unique in the world. It is 7 meters high and 3 meters in diameter and its ice never melts. In summer, every day at around one o’clock and one o’clock in the afternoon, the air temperature rises above zero and then very little water flows, and around 4 in the afternoon, the temperature drops below zero and the melted ice freezes again. ; This creates an icy waterfall that is always frozen. At the top of this waterfall there is a pit that is covered with snow all year round. Damavand Mountain Ice Waterfall, located at an altitude of 5,100 meters, is the highest waterfall in the Middle East in terms of altitude.

Damavand is a semi-active volcanic mountain that was formed during the fourth geological period called the Holocene and its lifespan is estimated at least 38,500 years using the carbon 14 method. The presence of several sulfur springs and hot springs is evidence of the semi-activity of this volcano. Most of the volcanic activity that led to the formation of this mountain occurred about 10,000 years ago. The diameter of the crater is about 400 meters, which is covered by a lake of ice.

Some believe that Damavand is not volcanic. But others believe that Damavand volcano is active and the outflow of gas and hot springs is a sign of its activity.

The vegetation of this area is rich; As many medicinal plants of this region are mentioned in authoritative botanical books. In different heights of Damavand mountain, there are many and various plants, some of which can be seen only at a certain height. The plants of this region, which are named after Damavand, are: Mir Hassan Damavandi hat, Damavandi goat, Damavandi yarrow, Damavandi elder, Damavandi’s beard, Damavand Makan Damavandi, Damavandi bells, Damavandi linen and Damavandi musk.

Some types of prickly shrubs of Damavand are: Mir Hassan Damavandi, hedgehog, thousand thorn species (such as astragalus), and many other types are also present in Damavand on the eastern slopes.

The slopes of Damavand Mountain at an altitude of 2,000 to 3,500 meters are completely covered with anemones. This unique anemone is known in the world and has been registered under the name of Lar and Rineh anemones in the authoritative botanical books of the world. This region is also very rich in terms of pasture and pastures; Even in the high altitudes of Damavand (below four thousand meters) there is not much poverty in this regard; The altitude of 2000 to 3500 meters The slope of this stable mountain is covered with an anemone carpet in spring. Due to its special location, which overlooks the forest from the north and the desert mountains from the south, this region hosts different types of animals.

Four-legged predators such as foxes, jackals, dogs and wolves are scattered around Damavand. These animals can be seen up to 4000 meters above Damavand mountain. Bears also live in this area, but are mostly seen in the west and north and avoid high altitudes.

Vegetarian animals such as whole, ewes, deer, hogs, rabbits can also be found in Damavand. Except for the boar and rabbit animals that live in the foothills of Damavand Mountain, other animals spend warm seasons at high altitudes and decrease in altitude as the weather cools. These animals can climb up to 5,000 meters.

Birds of prey such as the golden eagle, owl and bat can be named. Other birds in the area are terns, partridges, black-breasted and woodpeckers.

There are about five species of snakes, scorpions, beetles, mice and badgers. Most stings in this area do not contain deadly toxins; Even the most dangerous reptile bites can be treated within a few hours of the bite. In Damavand mountain, bites are very rare at altitudes above 4000 meters.

Damavand peak in the culture of Iran is a symbol of stability, stability and a national symbol and is registered as a national monument and is referred to as a national symbol in various ways. Its important plant species include yarrow, old Damavand plant, sainfoin He named Koohi and Gon. Excessive use of the tolerable capacity of the environment as well as the exploitation of mineral pumice around this national natural monument is one of the most important threatening factors in its destruction.

Damavand National Day will be held on the night of the 13th of November. Every year, the Iranian Mountaineers Association celebrates this festival on the 13th of July on the slopes of Damavand Peak in the city of Rineh Larijan in the city of Amol. This celebration has also reached the national record.

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